- 1970s fiscal crises, some major cities first proposed partnerships in response to them
- 1978 najor reductions in federal revenues for social programs began, president Carter's national urban policy clearly identified mutually reinforcing roles for the public and the private sectors in revitalizing urban centers.
- 1980s federal funds for social programs continued to shrink. Agenda for PPP expanded to include a growing number of functional areas of urban life, including housing, primary and secondary education, public-policy formation, high-technology business growth, and ,illiteracy, youth unemployment, homelessness, and substance abuse.
- During the Reagan administration, the President's Task Force on Private Sector Initiatives maintained an emphasis on PPP.
*1:Gray (1989) "Collaborating - Finding common ground for multiparty problems -". Jossey-Bass Publishers. pp.177-225